近日,世界最大的股票市场之一、美国著名的电子证券交易机构 Nasdaq 旗下财经媒体邀请 PlatON 云图首席战略官肖紫闻,就「智慧城市与区块链」的主题发表署名文章。肖紫闻表示,智慧城市已经真实地存在于我们的生活当中,然而基础设施的完善仍然有发展的空间。区块链技术在更好地保护数据安全,防止潜在攻击方面有着非常深远的意义和潜力。

原文标题:《世界最大的股票市场之一 Nasdaq 署名文章:< 新挑战,新解决方案——智慧城市的兴起 >》
作者:PlatON 首席战略官 Ada Xiao ,英国剑桥大学三一学院经济学学士,美国哥伦比亚大学商学院工商管理硕士。Ada 是万向区块链实验室早期成员之一,也是当时的市场拓展负责人。她还曾就职于分布式资本,负责亚太地区区块链技术的投资与合作。此外,Ada 深谙全球资本市场和资产管理业务,曾任职于香港著名投资银行与金融机构,包括高盛集团和瑞银全球资产管理公司。

PlatON 首席战略官 Ada Xiao:《新挑战,新解决方案——智慧城市的兴起》Ada Xiao PlatON 首席战略官

世界正在发生改变,我们所生活的城市也在不断变化。随着全球大都市数量不断增加,爆发性的全球都市化趋势愈加明显。从 1950 年到 2018 年,全球的城镇人口从 7.51 亿上升到 42 亿,面对仍在不断增加的数字,全球政府所面临的问题早已从城市化变成了环境可持续性。

这些问题促使城市规划者探索新的模式和科技来解决问题,因而新一代智慧城市兴起了。智慧城市强化了城市中心的性能、宜居性和性价比。

明日之城,当下科技

借助物联网设备和应用,智慧城市提供自动化和有效的公共服务,其网络互联设备将会覆盖到从交通指示灯到能源网等各个角落,可以用来进行自动驾驶系统训练、记录和监控电动汽车电池的使用情况到生态治理等方方面面。

目前,我们的家庭已经应用了一系列的网络互联技术,其中有 36% 覆盖了物联网应用,例如亚马逊的 Alexa,一种智能恒温器或智能电视。

智能设备在我们生活中的普及才刚刚开始。Garter 估计,在 2020 年,典型的智慧城市将有大约 97 亿物联网设备使得从医疗保健到废物处理等的各个环节都会充分利用有效的数据追踪为城市居民提供无缝的自动化服务。

分布式账本技术,如区块链,同时也会用来处理和优化由我们的智能设备产生和接收到的数据,促进两者间的数据交易。

想象一下,假如公园里的一个基于物联网的垃圾桶在垃圾满的时候向公园的管理部门发出一个相关的通知,就会有清洁工来清空垃圾桶。接着垃圾桶再自动向公园管理部门发出已清空的通知,废物管理公司将立即收到相应的服务费。

分布式账本技术允许交易日志在多个参与方中共享,包括公园的管理部门,废物管理部门和国家公共废物处理委员会。区块链在这当中充当一系列公共服务的数据库,促进城市有效地调配服务。

智慧城市:运营高效,高效节能

从推进可靠公共交通系统到创建可持续能源市场,智慧城市更加高效。我们很快可以看到无人驾驶公交在交通拥堵的时候将会接收到交通传感器的指示,然后自动切换路线避免在到达下一个充电站前在拥堵中浪费乘客的时间,还会根据实时的能耗获得高速运输管理的账单。

目前已经有很多城市推崇智慧城市项目并采用分布式账本技术来解决执行效率低下的问题。例如,印度于 2015 年推出了「智慧城市使命」项目,计划在全印度建立 100 座智慧城市。政府表明,许多印度城市的落地需要依靠区块链技术来推动。

爱沙尼亚在 2012 年应用分布式账本技术处理身份管理和税收方面的问题,给很多政府部门提供 7*24 小时的在线服务。政府引导创新由此带来良好的国家效率和宜居性,并推动了创新初创企业的爆发,贡献了近 10% 的国家 GDP。

除了惠利于当地经济之外,智慧城市还可以创建能量「交易所」让城市家庭可以彼此之间进行电力的交易,这样不仅可以降低能量存储需求,通过将能量导向真正需要的家庭,还可以助力可再生能源的普及。例如太阳能板,有余能的家庭可以成为其他家庭的能源生产者。

中国最大的汽车业巨头万向控股有限公司投资了 290 亿美元开发智慧城市,以区块链技术作为技术支撑。从万向在能源高效应用和电动汽车的发展上来看,这个项目将会力求保证未来城市的核心即为可持续性。

保障智慧城市:互联世界的数据保护

不断增加的关联性和危机之下,安全成了 47% 的物联网开发者最关心的事。关于安全的担忧并非毫无道理。2018 年,研究发现,现有的智慧城市系统有 17 个漏洞,黑客能从引发洪水报警和改变交通指示灯的形式对生活在智慧城市中的人们造成毁灭性的打击。

智慧城市已经真实地存在于我们的生活当中,然而基础设施的完善仍然有发展的空间。毫无疑问,我们的生活未来一定会更加互联,基础设施需要更多改善来保证每个居民的个人隐私和安全。

区块链技术在更好的保护数据安全,防止潜在攻击方面有着非常深远的意义和潜力,将数字货币和分布式架构应用进来可以加强那些内在安全的系统,如此便不会有内部的数据泄漏、无需群众监督,减少潜在黑客的入侵点。

隐私保护计算和安全多方计算的应用可以使参与计算的多方应用计算数据而不用担心数据泄漏,也无需依靠第三方来处理存储在系统中的大量价值。由于数据驱动技术,我们所生活的世界变得更加高效,个人隐私应该得到更强力的保护。

智慧城市必然会成为未来的城市中心,为成百上千万的人、服务和商业提供支持。此外,智慧城市还预示着数据隐私和网络安全日益显著的重要性。在越来越高度互联的世界,智慧城市相较于以往的大都市能提供更加高效、环境可持续和高性价比的枢纽。

然而,适当的基础设施必须不断发展来保护个人的安全和隐私,这使得日益成熟的技术能提高我们的生活质量,而不会让我们比过去经济更落后。

以下为英文原文:

The world is changing, as are the cities we inhabit. As the number of global megacities continues to rise, the international trend of explosive urbanization is increasingly difficult to ignore. With the world’s urban population growing from 751 million in 1950 to 4.2 billion in 2018 and continuing to rise, governments face mounting problems as a result, from urban efficiency to environmental sustainability.

These issues have forced urban planners to explore new models and technologies to yield new solutions – giving rise to a new generation of smart cities which enhance the performance, liveability, and cost-effectiveness of urban centers.

Tomorrow’s Cities, Today’s Technology

Smart cities will rely upon internet of things (IoT)-connected devices and appliances to provide automated and efficient public services. This web of interconnected devices will include everything from traffic lights to energy grids and could be used to do anything from train auto-driving systems to recording and monitoring electric vehicle batteries to manage ecological waste.

Already, our homes constitute a web of interconnected technologies, with more than 36% containing an IoT-connected appliance, such as Amazon’s_Alexa_, a smart thermostat, or smart television.

The proliferation of smart devices in our lives has only just begun, with Gartner estimating that by 2020 almost 9.7 billion IoT devices will make up the typical smart city – and that everything from healthcare to waste management will make use of efficient data tracking, providing seamless automated services for urban inhabitants.

Distributed ledger technologies (DLT), such as blockchain, meanwhile, have the potential to handle and optimize the wealth of data that our smart devices produce and receive, facilitating transactions between them.

Imagine, for example, an IoT-enabled trash can in a public park. The trash can sends a notification to the parks department once it is almost full and a garbageman is dispatched to empty it. The trash can sends another automated notification to the parks department once it is empty and the waste management company receives instant payment for its service.

DLT would allow this log of transactions to be shared between multiple parties: the parks department, the waste management company, and national boards in charge of processing public waste. The same blockchain could serve as a database for a range of public services, from healthcare to streetlamps, helping the city to coordinate services efficiently.

Smart Cities: Operationally Efficient, Energy Efficient

From facilitating reliable public transport systems to creating sustainable energy markets – smart cities will be more efficient than anything which has gone before them. We could soon see autonomous buses being informed by traffic sensors of traffic jams as they occur, automatically perting their route to avoid delays for commuters before directing themselves to an available charging point, billing the transit authority in real time for their energy consumption.

Numerous countries are already pursuing smart city projects and adopting DLT to cut down on administrative inefficiencies. India, for example, launched its Smart Cities Mission in 2015, in the hope of developing 100 smart cities across the country. The government has stated that many smart city initiatives will be underpinned by blockchain technology.

Estonia, meanwhile, has used DLT since 2012 to tackle issues such as ID management and taxation – and offers the majority of government services online, 24/7. Government-led innovation has resulted in greater national efficiency and liveability, and the explosion of a vibrant startup sector accounting for almost 10% of the country’s GDP.

In addition to benefiting local economies, smart cities may also enable the creation of energy “exchanges'' where houses trade electricity between themselves. Such a system would not only reduce the need for energy storage, with electricity being redirected locally to where it’s needed, but could also contribute to the popularity of renewable energy sources, such as solar panels, as homes would benefit directly from becoming producers of surplus energy.

In China, the country’s biggest automotive component manufacturer, Wanxiang, has pledged to invest $29 billion over the course of the next decade to support the development of Innova Smart City – using blockchain technology to form its technological backbone. Mirroring Wanxiang’s development of energy efficient applications and electric automobiles, the project will seek to ensure that sustainability lies at the heart of the cities of tomorrow.

Securing Smart Cities: Data Protection in an Interconnected World

As a result of the dangers associated with our increasing connectedness, 47% of IoT developers cite security as their primary concern. These concerns are not unreasonable. In 2018, researchers found 17 vulnerabilities within existing smart city systems which could have enabled hackers to wreak havoc on entire populations by setting off flood warning systems and changing traffic signals.

While smart cities are already a reality, the infrastructure necessary to support them still has some way to go: more needs to be done to ensure the privacy and security for every citizen, as we become invariably more interconnected.

Blockchain technology has profound potential to better secure data from potential attacks, while applied cryptography and distributed architectures can underpin systems which are inherently secure, without the risk of insider data leaks, mass surveillance, and fewer points of entry for would-be-hackers.

The implementation of privacy preserving computation (PPC) and Multi-Party Computation (MPC), meanwhile, would allow multiple parties to utilize data without revealing the input data itself or trusting a third party to handle the wealth of information stored within the system. While the world in which we live becomes more efficient as a result of data-driven technologies – inpidual privacy remains uncompromised.

来源链接:mp.weixin.qq.com